In English, the plural is often formed by adding “s” to the singular form. This is also the case for words that end with vowel+y. For example:
But there are cases where we add more than “s”. For words ending with consonant+y, we substitute -y with -ies.
For words ending by x, s, z, ch or sh, we add -es.
For the words ending with f or fe, we substitute with -ves.
For the words ending with o, we add -es.
In addition to these forms of plural, there are irregular forms:
Latin and Greek words also change irregularly.
Words that end with -us can become -i for plural like alumnus to alumni. Words that end with -um will usually end with -a like medium and media. Words that end with -ex and -ix can end with -ices like appendix and appendices. Nouns that end with -is will usually end with -es like analysis and analyses. Nouns that end with -on will usually end with a like criterion and criteria.
Some nouns have an -s at the end but are actually singular like news and economics.
Some nouns do not have any change at the end but are actually plural like baggage and luggage. The only way to be sure about these words is to actively memorize and recognize them.
Let’s do some exercises with what we have learned already. Write the plural version of the following words:
apartment, street, road, sky, fly, tornado, avocado, loaf, half, punch, bus, goose, appendix.